International Conference on Infection Biology is a public forum for scientists to discuss current data about the host-microbe interactions. This is started between members of the CINVESTAV-IPN, ENCB-IPN and the DAAD in Mexico and our aim is to introduce people to this area and create a new environment research that allows young scientists to study the molecular interactions between microbes and hosts in a dynamic and temporal way.
We additionally seek to promote the exchange of ideas and the establishment of relationships between German and Mexican scientists in the field of infection biology. We also seek to introduce new methodology to study host microbial interactions in Mexico. Furthermore, we look to foster the binational cooperation between scientists and exchange of students between both countries and approach professional employees of the national health institutions to the field of the infection biology.
Host-microbe interactions are responsible for symbiotic and parasitic relationships within a specific time and environmental conditions in a host. To understand these relationships, one has to look at the moment of the interaction and quantify the outcome either from the pathogen (virulence expression, physiologic and metabolic changes) and the host (activation of cellular & humoral innate mechanisms of defence) over distinct time periods to track the fate of the infection. This is not only valid for pathogens but also for commensal bacterial.
ICIB 2017 will take place at Centre for Research and Advanced Studies (CINVESTAV) of the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN) in Mexico City, MEXICO. CINVESTAV is the research institute of the IPN and operates as associated institute . CINVESTAV was created by Manuel Cerrillo Valdivia (EPIME/MIT), Eugenio Méndez Docurro (ESIME), José Mireles Malpica (ESIME) under the administration of the Ministry of Education by Jaime Torres Bodet. This possesses an internal administration and internal general director to improve the performance of its functions as research institute. Their primary aims of CINVESTAV were established by the creation Act of 1961 as to produce highly qualified human resources in research and science and contribute to the scientific activities and provides scientists to increase the research in the schools of the IPN.
CINVESTAV is also responsible to impulse the development of science in other institutions and provide academic recourses for other universities in Mexico. Besides is one of the first institutions exclusively dedicated to basic research in Mexico. CINVESTAV-IPN has diverse campi around Mexico and is a leading institution on medical and biological sciences as well as engineering, physics and mathematics over the world. On Microbiology, there are diverse experts as Prof. Gabriel Guarneros Pena dedicated to the study of the small coding DNA (mini-genes), RNA synthesis and prokaryotic gene expresion mechanisms. The group of Prof. Jaime Mena Garcia is dedicated to protein regulation in Escherichia coli and other fermenting bacteria as well as microbial consortia. CINVESTAV also possess one of the largest cell lines and microorganisms culture collection in the country, which is member of the International Union for Microbiology Societies. CINVESTAV-IPN is a cutting edge institutions dedicated to contribute to the scientific progress of Mexico and the Human welfare
Arturo Rosenblueth, the first chairman of CINVESTAV, said in the inaugural session of CINVESTAV:
“We want that our collaboration with IPN abundantly overflows the minimal limits of the Creation Act…we have developed so far our activities in workshops, laboratories and with equipment of the faculties and schools of the IPN…Finally we wish that the bounds with the IPN will be more than only academic but rather friendship.”
IPN is a state public university created in 1936 by Lazaro Cardenas del Rio as the official higher education institution representing Mexico. IPN was created to impulse the development of technology, and science, in order to solve the main problems in Mexico and to impulse the progress of the country after the civil wars of 1910 - 1930. Headquarters of the IPN are located at the north of Mexico City together with its research institute: CINVESTAV.
IPN was pioneering in Mexico, and also one of the first universities in the Americas to independently teach bacteriology apart from medicine. This was achieved after the creation of the School of Bacteriology in 1934 at the Universidad Obrera de Mexico” (UOM), previously Universidad “Gabino Barreda”. The studies as bacteriologist were focused on the continuation of the research already started in the National Institute for Bacteriology created in 1905 by Angel Gaviño under the government of Porfirio Diaz. Since UOM decided to cancel the recent studies as bacteriologist, Diodoro Antúnez Echegaray promoted the creation of the National School of Sciences that was absorbed by the recent created IPN. On July 13th 1936, the study program of Chemist Bacteriologist Parasitologist was officially accepted and established by presidential Act.
ENCB is a faculty of the IPN and offers Chemist Bacteriologist Parasitologist program. This study program is oriented to understand the living and physiological processes of microorganisms and virus from a chemical and physical perspective. To achieve this, students are prepared in human-related subjects as haematology, immunology, anatomy and cytology. The full practical program of this study course prepares the students for diverse tasks in research, clinical, industrial and environmental areas.
You can download the detailed program here:Full Program
Here you can meet the speakers and read their abstracts by clicking on the corresponding picture.
Bacteriology in Mexico was first established during the presidential period of Porfirio Diaz in order to combat the infectious diseases caused by bacteria that were overwhelming the health of the Mexican population. Many Hospitals were created during his government and also of National Institute for Bacteriology (IBN). IBN was dedicated to study the physiology of pathogen bacteria, vaccine production and sera against diverse infectious diseases and insect bites. During the Mexican civil war of 1910-1920, the IBN was converted into the National Institute of Hygiene and became the official institution for sanitary control by that time. After severe political changes in the education, and to rescue the country from the economic crisis from the previous war, one university that represents the interests of Mexico and contributes to the local industrial progress, health and education was of extreme relevance for the current government. Therefore, President Lazaro Cardenas del Rio, Ing. Juan de Dios Batiz and Ing. Wilfrido Massieu created the National Polytechnic Institute (IPN). The intentions to have a school specifically dedicated to impulse the teaching and research on microbiology in Mexico was of paramount importance for Cardenas, therefore IPN absorbed the School for Bacteriology and converted into the National School of Sciences (ENCB). Microbiology was then for the first time in America introduced as undergraduate formal studies and called Chemist-Bacteriologist-Parasitologist (QBP for its initials in Spanish: Químico Bacteriólogo Parasitólogo), where not only the medical bacteriology was studied, but bacterial physiology, parasitology, and other related subjects were included in the program of QBP. Nowadays, our school also offers postgraduate studies in Chemical and Biological Science, Molecular Biomedicine, and Immunology. Due to the effort of the IPN alumni, many health institutions were created by graduated students from the IPN, having the leading role to control the infection diseases in Mexico. This allowed us to observe that we cannot consider microorganisms as the sole damaging agent in an infectious disease but also the host. Thus, the study of the host-microbe interaction becomes a relevant topic in our country. At IPN –ENCB Immunolgy department was created and becomes independent from Microbiology Department with great success and collaborative studies. Since, we are still struggling combating bacterial infectious diseases that otherwise, they will be controlled by other methods than antibiotics, we therefore propose on this conference that we need new research methodology and environment necessary to study host-microbe interactions in order to design new strategies to combat infectious diseases in Mexico. The development of novel biotherapheutics is an essential and powerful element to control and cure infectious diseases, but also prevention and vaccination programs, epidemiological surveillance with real data, and environmental research with recent advances in molecular biology. In order to especially combat emergent diseases, we call here to increase the financial support from public and private institutions to improve and create new programs directed to understand the interactions of those microbes responsible for infectious diseases in Mexico and the rest of the World, and contribute to the welfare of the human kind.
Phage-derived recombinases such as lambda Red enable the precise manipulation of bacterial genomes. This technology marked a breakthrough in bacterial genetics and is of utmost importance in modern microbiological research. The ability of these enzymes to use DNA fragments of less than 40 bp as substrates for homologous recombination makes these approaches essentially cloning-free. In combination with negative selection procedures ‘scarless’ modifications such as single nucleotide exchanges, deletions or seamless integration of heterologous DNA are possible. The application of this technology also enables the generation of single-copy reporter gene fusions at defined positions within the genome. Reporter gene expression results in easy to detect fluorescent, luminescent or chromogenic signals which can be used to analyze gene regulation, protein localization, protein secretion, protein-protein interactions and more.
The epithelial barrier of the intestines forms a critical first line defense against bacterial pathogens. Enterocytes are polarized epithelial cells that establish a tightly regulated semi-permeable barrier with very stringent cell-cell contacts called tight-junctions (TJ) and adherens junctions (AJ). TJ are composed of transmembranal proteins such as claudins and occludin that are connected to the actin cytoskeleton by zonula occludens (ZO) proteins. AJ are primarily established by E-cadherin that also connects to actin via members of the catenin family. The actin-binding molecule cortactin can interact with both ZO-1 and E-Cadherin and contributes to cortical F-actin formation and junction stabilization. Using cortactin-deficient mice, we have recently shown that cortactin regulates intestinal epithelial permeability and neutrophil recruitment in the colon by controlling GTPase signaling and stress fiber formation. These data prompted us to investigate the effect of cortactin deficiency on intestinal epithelial barrier functions during Salmonella infections. In Mexico and around the world, salmonellosis is a serious infectious disease causing severe diarrhea and it remains a heavy burden for health systems. Thus, further investigation of the mechanisms of salmonellosis is warranted.
Despite the tight organization of TJ and AJ, Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium (Salmonella) can easily breach epithelial barriers upon invasion. The Salmonella type-3-secretion system 1(T3SS-1) and its effector proteins reorganize the F-actin cytoskeleton of the host cell enabling bacterial invasion and loss of barrier functions. Preliminary in vitro data show that epithelial barrier dysfunction was altered by the bacterial guanylate exchange factors (GEF) SopE and SopE2 which are translocated by the T3SS-1. Rac1, a target of SopE, is indispensable for Salmonella invasion at the apical side of polarized epithelial cells and cortactin is involved in Rac1 signaling. It appears that the recruitment of cortactin to ruffles away from cell contacts contributes to the disassembly of TJ and AJ and thus barrier weakening as a consequence of disturbed polymerization of the cortical F-actin belt. However, nothing is known about the in vivo role of cortactin during salmonellosis. Interestingly, infecting cortactin KO mice with Salmonella WT strains resulted in more severe disease.
Thus, in our group we are interested to find out the mechanisms deployed by Salmonella to disrupt the epithelial barrier and reach the underlaying tissues.
The interplay between pathogenic bacteria and cells of the host is tremendously complex and not well understood. A better understanding of this interface between molecules from both worlds, bacteria and host cells, bears the potential to find new ways to interrupt this often fatal interaction and might pave the way to novel anti-infective strategies.
The focus of our research is the interaction between commensal and pathogenic microorganisms with the mucosal innate immune system in the intestine. In particular, we are interested in the situation in the neonate host that transits from the environmentally protected and sterile situation in utero to microbial and environmental exposure after birth on ist way to establish a stable host-microbial homeostasis. This is reflected by many functional and structural differences between the neonate and adult mucosal tissue and immune system. Aim of our research is a better understanding the mutual interaction between commensal bacteria and the host, Also we aim at the identification of age-specific differences in the antimicrobial host response and susceptibility to infection with enteropathogenic microorganisms. We therefore examine important human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica, rotavirus, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Listeria monocytogenes. These microorganisms cause a significant morbidity and – particularly in the pediatric population – also a significant mortality worldwide. We hope that a better understanding of the pathogenesis of microbial infection as well as the protective immune response of the host will generate new strategies to prevent and treat infection.
It is currently accepted that H. pylori has evolved to specifically colonize the human gastric mucosa, and in particular the gastric pit region of a healthy gastric mucosa. It is also believed that Hp is unable to colonize a disease stomach tissue or any other human organ.
We aimed to challenge these concepts and probe the ability of the bacteria to colonize not only the pits but also deeper glands in the stomach, and its ability to remain colonizing the gastric tissues of patients with cancerous lesions. We also aimed to characterize the presence of Hp in other organs. We present evidences that Hp is able to colonize deep regions of gastric glands in areas with precursors cells in mitosis, but also at the bottom of glands in close contact with stem cells. The interaction of Hp with these cells resulted in increased proliferation of progenitor and stem cells. Microbiota studies show the abundant presence of Hp in gastric tissues with precancerous and cancerous lesions; and Hp localized in the gastric mucus, intracellular in the epithelia and even in circulation, attached to erythrocytes. We also present microbiota and microscopy studies documenting the presence of Hp in the mucus layer of bile duct in patients with bile duct cancer.
Migration frequently involves Rac-mediated protrusion of lamellipodia, formed by Arp2/3 complex-dependent branching thought to be crucial for force generation and stability of these networks. The formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are Cdc42 effectors targeting to the lamellipodium tip and shown here to nucleate and elongate actin filaments with complementary activities in vitro. In migrating B16-F1 melanoma cells, both formins contribute to the velocity of lamellipodium protrusion. Loss of FMNL2/3 function in melanoma cells and fibroblasts reduces lamellipodial width, actin filament density and -bundling, without changing patterns of Arp2/3 complex incorporation. Strikingly, in melanoma cells, FMNL2/3 gene inactivation almost completely abolishes protrusion forces exerted by lamellipodia and modifies their ultrastructural organization. Consistently, CRISPR/Cas-mediated depletion of FMNL2/3 in fibroblasts reduces both migration and capability of cells to move against viscous media. Lamellipodial actin filament networks are generated and turned over by combined activities of filament assembly factors (Arp2/3 complex and formins), disassembly factors such as cofilin and by capping protein. As opposed to the branching activity of Arp2/3 complex, lamellipodial formins FMNL2 and FMNL3 are not essential for the generation of lamellipodial actin networks, but proposed to generate specific subsets of filaments contributing to the density and mechanical stability of lamellipodia, essential for effective protrusion and lamellipodial force generation (FMNL2/3 KO) during migration. Together, we conclude that force generation in lamellipodia strongly depends on FMNL formin activity, operating in addition to Arp2/3 complex-dependent filament branching.
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Dept. Molecular Biomedicine
Alfonso Felipe-López studied Chemistry Bacteriology and Parasitology at the National Polytechnic Institute Mexico from 2001-2007, and he received his PhD (Dr. rer. nat.) in infection biology in 2014 at the University of Osnabrück, Germany. Dr. Felipe-López has been working as scientific assistant in diverse institutions from Germany, Sweden and Mexico. His research mainly focuses on the study of the internalization of pathogenic bacteria into epithelial layers, the interaction of host proteins from polarized epithelial cells and virulence factors, and the physiological consequences in the host cells during bacterial infections. Additionally, he develops methods for life cell imaging and analysis of microscopy images.
Department of Biochemistry
Abigail Pérez Valdespino concluded her studies of Chemistry Bacteriology and Parasitology at the National Polytechnic Institute in 2004 and obtained her PhD at Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas of IPN. She continued her research activities as Post Doctoral Fellow at University of Connecticut. She is currently Professor at the Department of Biochemistry of the ENCB-IPN. Her research is focused on the study of dynamics of genetic elements such as transposons, plasmids and integrons.
International Conference on Infection Biology
Centre for Research and Advanced Studies of the National Polytechnic Institute
Av. IPN 2508
P.B. 07360 San Pedro Zacatenco
Tel. (+52) 55 5747 3800 e. 5003
National School for Sciences of the National Polytechnic Institute.
Prol. de Carpió y Plan de Ayala s/n.
P.B. 11350 Casco de Santo Tomas
Tel. (+52) 55 5729 6300 e. 62007
Bachelor Student at ESCOM-IPN
Current Intern (May, 2017) at CINVESTAV-IPN
Dr. Alfonso Felipe-López
Lab. Michael Schnoor
Dept. Molecular Biomedicine
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